Thursday, 24 December 2009

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The Evils of Terrorism[1] - Lecture

As mentioned in the introduction and in order to make it clear, Islam is free from terrorism and corruption. Islam is established upon mercy, justice, mutual love and concern with rectifying the earth and its people, Islam therefore forbids corrupting the earth and its people.

Then we mentioned the excellent interaction that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) had with the people, from the kuffaar (disbelievers), such as the people of the book such as Jews and Christians. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) interacted with people with justice, mercy and loving good for the people. In all of the battles that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) participated in was in order to spread this goodness, mercy, justice and love amongst the people, therefore, Islam is free from this call to terrorism.

As for the term terrorism in the Arabic language 'irhaab' this is a new term which is not found within the classical Arabic dictionaries at all. Rather it has only surfaced in the modern era due to some people utilising it as a specific method yet with unlegislated means, such as violence, killing, breeding fear and its like. Some of these dictionaries mention that the 'terrorist' is: one who utilises violence and terrorism in order to establish his own rule.

Terrorism is the terror that is caused by those groups or individuals who resort to killing and wreaking havoc and destruction. Terrorism is therefore, according to the contemporary compilers of modern Arabic dictionaries, killing akin to the riotous killing that is mentioned within the texts of Shar'eeah. As the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) mentioned with regards to the signs of the end of time, the spread of 'al-Harj' (riotous killing).

The meaning of 'al-Harj' is killing and the increase of the spilling blood, which is all from the signs of the end of time. To the extent that the one killing will not know why he is killing and the one that was killed will not know why he/she was killed. Islam is free from this riotous killing, free from this terrorism and free from this kind of corruption.

Terrorism is established upon destruction of properties such as factories, farms, places of worship, train stations, airports and the likes; Islam is clearly free from such actions that are based upon corruption and not upon rectification.

Terrorists usually say that they are going against the state in which they are based within. This is like the mafia or other criminal organisations that are based on killing people, causing fear and taking their monies. Such criminal organisations have leaders, deputies and individuals that are responsible for establishing regulations for the organisation and individuals responsible for carrying out attacks, and all of them are terrorists causing corruption on the earth.

However the ugliest face of terrorism is that which is established in the name of religion, all of the religions from the Prophets (peace be upon them) are free from such terrorism, even if some of the followers of the Prophets participated in such terrorist activities, but the Prophets are free from such corruptions.

The terrorists are in need of doubtful proofs for their methodology especially those who attribute themselves to the Prophets (peace be upon them), they claim that the Prophets ordered them to commit terrorism. Many of those who commit acts of terrorism from those who attribute themselves to the religion of the Jews claim that Moosaa (Moses) commanded them to do terrorism or that the other Prophets from the children of Israa'eel ordered them to do terrorism yet this is a lie.[2] As Moosaa (peace be upon him) and all of the Prophets from the children of Israa'eel (peace be upon them) never ever ordered people to commit terrorism.

Likewise, those who commit acts of terrorism and attribute themselves to Eesaa (Jesus) claim that the gospels sanction terrorism and the use of it over the enemy.[3] I have some texts which I have gathered from other sources wherein such terrorists (in the name of Jesus and Christianity) claim that the gospel allows it, however the time does not allow for me to mention all of this here.

The important matter for us to mention is that Eesaa was sen with mercy like all of the Prophets, peace be upon them, and it is not possible that they ordered people to commit acts of terrorism.

Likewise, those who attribute themselves in this era from the people of corruption, bombing and takfeer within the Muslim countries and the non-Muslim countries, need certain texts from the Qur'aan and sunnah for them to refer. They claim that such texts lead to terrorism but they are lying about this as the Prophet (sallallaallaahu alayhi wassallam) is totally free from terrorism. For that reason, the Muslim scholars have denounced all acts of terrorism that are committed by those who associate themselves with Islam.

The Muslim scholars denounced the attacks on the world trade buildings in New York and made clear that those who committed the act were criminals and that they had nothing to do with Islam and that they merely killed themselves, and whoever kills themselves intentionally will be in hellfire killing themselves, and Allaah's refuge is sought.

Similarly, the Muslim scholars denounced the terrorist attacks committed by those who associate themselves with Islam that took place in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The scholars also denounced the terrorist attacks committed by those who associate themselves with Islam that took place in Sharm ash-Sheikh in Egypt. The scholars also denounced the terrorist attacks that took place on the tube stations in London, they denounced this and made clear that Islam has nothing to do with such actions and that Islam is free of them.

The doubts of the terrorists, with regards to their twisting of the texts, are with the verse from Soorah al-Anfaal verse 60 wherein Allaah says:

{And prepare against them whatever you are able of power and of steeds of war by which you may terrify the enemy of Allaah and your enemy and others besides them whom you do not know (but) Allaah knows. And whatever you spend in the cause of Allaah will be fully repaid to you, and you will not be wronged.}, [Soorah al-Anfaal, Aayah 60]

The verse that comes after it explains it perfectly, wherein Allaah says:

{And if they incline towards peace, then incline to it also and rely upon Allaah. Indeed, it is He who is the Hearing, the Knowing.}, [Soorah al-Anfaal, Aayah 61]

This verse explains the initial verse perfectly, as Allaah within this verse explains the condition of the Muslims with non-Muslims.

The first state is one of war, and war is usually not between individual Muslims and individual kuffaar, no! War is between the armies of the Muslim state and the armies of a disbelieving state and we should not be ashamed of this at all.

All of the Prophets (peace be upon them) fought and prepared armies, and people up until this day have armies and prepare military strength. All of the great states in every time and place have prepared armies and have obtained a variety of weapons in order to frighten people. Obtaining weapons is a defensive and preventative method not an offensive method, as if the enemy knows that you have a number of devastating weapons he will not even consider to go to war against you.

Rather the great states, past and present, have been concerned with forming armed groups in order to frighten their enemies such as the Warsaw pact,[4] NATO[5] and other large alliances that are formed by large states in order to gain power and secure itself from its enemies.

The Islamic state has the same concern as all states past and present, yet it is upon an Islamic state not on individuals to do this. The verse is directed to an Islamic state:

{And prepare against them whatever you are able of power}, [Soorah al-Anfaal, Aayah 60]

This is for an Islamic state. Is it permissible for any individual within a major state to store or possess mass weapons in his house? The answer is clearly no; it is not permissible according to the customary laws of that state rather it is for the state to possess such weapons. Likewise according to the contemporary regulations there are certain weapons that are prohibited for states to possess as such weapons cause indiscriminate destruction upon crops and vegetation.[6] This can be seen with the current prohibition of nuclear weapons which cause devastation and serve no benefit in armies possessing them.

Also the verse says to an Islamic state that it is incumbent upon yourselves to be ready and be strong so that the enemy will fear you and will not even think about going to war against you. As if you are weak the enemy will easily be able to gain power over you and if you are strong, the enemy will fear you. This verse is directed to an Islamic state not individuals as every state today possesses weapons and power and guides its borders and keeps its affairs from its enemies and manufactures weapons. In the same way, an Islamic state guides its borders and affairs. In terms of defining an enemy the first type are those who take its people and if kuffaar war against an Islamic state then it is incumbent, upon an Islamic state not individuals, to arm itself with necessary weapons.

As for the terrorist tribulations in the current era, then those people are not an Islamic state and they are also not those to whom the verse in the Qur'aan is directed to those who are the leaders of states, not individuals who live within a state. those individuals have to listen to the ruler of the Muslims and obey him and not fight anyone except with the rulers permission and authorisation.

If the ruler of the Muslims has made agreements with disbelieving nations, such as Britain, America and France then it is not permissible for us to fight against a state that the leader of the Muslims has made agreements with. This is the case even if some aspects of the conditions of agreement seem oppressive on us, as the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) made an agreement with the kuffaar of Makkah even though some of the companions felt that some of the conditions were against the Muslims and hard on them, but the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) commanded them to listen and obey, and thus the companions listened and obeyed.[7]

As for those Muslims who are living within the kuffaar states then the Divine Legislation, intellect and customs indicate that it is not permissible for a Muslim that has entered a disbelieving country to cheat them.8 Rather it is for every Muslim within such disbelieving countries to respect the agreements and promises that were made in order to enter and live in the country.

Indeed, it is upon such a Muslim, according to the intellect and the Divine Legislation, to show thanks and gratitude to the people of such a country and to be good with them and be merciful with them and be kind with them and thank them for allowing them to live amongst them in their country.

These disbelievers have allowed them to enter the country and have allowed them to seek Islamic knowledge and have allowed them to study and have allowed them to work and conduct business within their countries. It may even be the case that some Muslims take monies from the kuffaar countries (such as social benefits and welfare state handouts) or utilise a card under their sponsorship or obtain a passport from them in order to travel the world mighty and honoured under their sponsorship. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said: "Whoever does not thank the people has not thanked Allaah."

Therefore those who have entered kuffaar countries should indeed show gratitude to them for allowing them to enter their countries. As now they have money and honour and if not for the kuffaar and the police within those countries maybe his money would have been taken or he would have been killed or his honour would have been disrespected. However, the laws and organisation of those kuffaar countries, and we do not say that all of what is in them is true, we rather just emphasise this point alone, have allowed them into the country and as a result such Muslims should fear Allaah and be grateful for that good by keeping to their promises and agreements with such kuffaar.[9]

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) when he made an agreement with the kuffaar of Makkah and some people became Muslims after the agreement and rectification, the Prophet still had to fulfil the agreement and send them back to their people such as the case of Aboo Jandal.[10]

Look my noble brother at the justice of Islam and to the strength of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) in adhering to agreements.

So in our discussion of the kuffaar countries, we mainly cover two matters:

FIRST: The Islamic state, like a kuffaar state, has to arm itself with weapons and defend itself. This is for a state and not for us individuals within an Islamic state who have to listen to the ruler and obey.

SECOND: If we are in a kuffaar country we have to fear Allaah and thank such states for providing us with good such as entering their countries.

The verse in al-Anfaal is for the Muslim states not for individuals to carry out and Muslim states today arm and prepare themselves and prioritise such matters as all states do. Indeed, they even purchase weapons from kuffaar states from the west and east in order to gather weapons and empower itself and to guard its borders as much as it is able to. For this reason, the land of Islam has been protected on many occasions from the plans of the kuffaar, and all praise is due to Allaah. For example, we are now in conflict with the state known as 'Israel' and we have been for over fifty years, thus it arms itself and empowers itself via purchasing weapons from the east and west[11] and thus we also purchase weapons from the east and west and there is no shame in this. No Muslims or kuffaar have said that you should not arm yourselves; only some states that aligned themselves with Germany during the Second World War are prohibited from arming themselves to a considerable extent such as Japan and Switzerland according to the laws, as they have a prior experience with exploiting armaments.

There is no shame in a Muslim state in purchasing weapons but what is a problem is to establish tribulations such as the mafia, highway robbers or terrorists, who kill, devastate and cause corruption.

Going back to the verse then, it is a command for an Islamic state and not for individual Muslims within a state as individual Muslims are under the jurisdiction of the Islamic state. If the leader of the Muslims has made an agreement with other states then it is not permissible at all for us to wage war against the citizens of such states. It is not permissible for a Muslim to fight the kuffaar with whom the leader of the Muslims has an agreement.

So with this may Allaah preserve and protect you, Allaah has legislated laws and regulations for Muslims to interact with non-Muslims. We find that these regulations are clear and with no doubts within them.

As for those bombers that you have over there who terrorise the people then it should be known that such people not only wreak havoc over there but also in Makkah, Madeenah of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam), Riyadh, Khobar, Shaam, Egypt and not only the Christian countries.

Terrorism has no religion and no country, rather it is based on kindling tribulations and is concerned with wreaking havoc on the earth or has other goals, whether economic or political, we do not know. However, we say that terrorism is always associated with wreaking havoc and corruption, and Allaah commanded rectification and forbade corruption and Islam came with rectification and to prevent corruption.

Therefore, the verse in al-Anfaal is not an evidence for terrorism as all of the commentators of the verse have noted that it is directed to the leaders of the Muslims. All of the Muslim states today strengthen themselves, which a natural human phenomena, and have armies in order to defend themselves from any enemies and so that the enemy will know that they are strong. Have you ever seen anyone enter into a Lions den? No, this is not possible as it is strong. But the home of a gazelle, rabbit or pigeon is easy to enter upon, but the Lion's den is not as easy because it is strong.

Even though it is not necessary for the lion to attack people as it eats whatever suffices it from the forest. Islam and the Muslims, past and present, are free from terrorism and have rejected those who support terrorist atrocities in the Muslim countries, in America, in Britain and in other countries and have stated that such people have merely killed themselves which is not permissible in Islam and that whoever intentionally kills themselves is in the hellfire for eternity.

As for the spurious evidences that terrorists utilise then they are indeed many and the most important evidence that they use is the verse from al-Anfaal, yet Allaah says after it:

"And if they incline towards peace, then incline to it also and rely upon Allaah. Indeed, it is He who is the Hearing, the Knowing." {al-Anfaal (8): 61}

Therefore the Muslim countries are at peace with all of the nation states of the world in the east and the west, with the exception of Israel and we ask Allaah to suffice the Muslims from its evil.

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[1] This lecture was given on Saturday August 20th 2005 via tele-link at Masjid Ibn Taymeeyah (Brixton Mosque, London) and was translated at the masjid by Umar al-Jamaykee.

[2]This has also been attested by some Jewish writers such as Israel Shahak in his book Jewish History, Jewish Religion – The Weight of Three Thousand Years (Pluto Press). He notes how the Talmud mentions that if a Jew passes near an inhabited non-Jewish dwelling, he must ask God to destroy it, whereas if the building is in ruins he must thank the Lord for his retribution on the 'Gentiles'. (p. 93 – quoting the Tractate Berakhot, p.58b) furthermore, Shahak notes Rabbi Shabbtay Kohen (mid 17th century), Siftey Kohen on Shulhan 'Arukh, 'Yoreh De'ah', 158: "But in times of war it was the custom to kill them with one's own hands, for it is said, "The best of gentiles, kill him!"." Siftey Kohen and Turey Zahay are the two major classical commentaries on the Shulhan 'Arukh. (Shahak, pp.76 and 113). Michael Hoffman on his website that discusses Jewish affairs notes that according to Jewish teachings non-Jewish women are "Niddah, Shifchah, Goyyah and Zonah (menstrual filth, slaves, heathens and whores)." [Translator's Note]

[3] Christian groups such as the Catholic IRA in Northern Ireland and its offshoots such as the Real IRA have sanctioned terrorism. On the side are the Protestants in Northern Ireland with many of the Ulster based pro-British unionist groups which have also participated in terrorism. In Spain, the Basque separatist group Eta are well known for their terrorism which they justify in the name of nationalism and religion. Also in Latin America there are a number of terrorist cells that operate under the banner of Christianity. Also in Europe the neo-Nazi groups who also perform a number of terrorist activities under the pretext of preserving Anglo-saxon Christianity and European heritage. From the mushriks there are the likes of the Aum cult of Japan who commanded chemical attacks upon the Japanese tube network in the 1990s and also in Sri Lanka the Tamil Tigers terrorist group. [Translator's Note]

[4] The Warsaw Pact, also known as the 'Warsaw Treaty', was a military alliance of the Eastern European countries (the Eastern Bloc) who intended to organise against the perceived threat from NATO. The Pact was prompted by the integration of a 're-militarised' west Germany into NATO via the ratification of the Paris Agreement. The Warsaw Pact was drafted by Nikita Krushchev in 1955 CE and singed in Warsaw. It came to an end and 1991 CE and was dissolved in Prague. [Translator's Note]

[5] The North Atlantic Trade Organisation, sometimes referred to as the 'North Atlantic Alliance', the 'Atlantic Alliance' or the 'Western Alliance'. It is an international organisation for defence collaboration and was established in 1949 CE. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO

[6] In Islam, the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) forbade the use of 'scorched earth policies' wherein crops, vegetation and livestock were destroyed, burned or devastated. The kuffaar also claim to prohibit such weapons that cause such indiscriminate destruction yet the reality is that it has mainly been the kuffaar nations who have utilised such weapons of 'mass destruction' such as on Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq. Depleted Uranium was used for the first time on Iraq during the first gulf war and it has a radioactive future of 125,000 years, like the effects of Agent Orange (which was used on Vietnam) its effects on populations and on future generations are devastating. [Translator's Note]

[7] The Shaykh (hafidhahullaah) is referring here to the Hudaybiyah Treaty which was made between the Muslims and the polytheists of Quraysh. When the mushrikeen of Quraysh witnessed the determination of the Muslims to risk their lives, properties, wealth and families for their faith in order to spread it peacefully, they realised that the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) and his followers (radi Allaahu 'anhum) could not be bullied or frightened by mere scare tactics. Therefore, a treaty of reconciliation and peace was made between the Quraysh and the Muslims. The clauses of the treaty were:
· The Muslims would return and come back in the following year (7 AH) but they would not stay in Makkah for more than three days and without arms except those concealed;
· War activities were to be suspended for ten years, during which both sides will live in security with neither side waging war against the other;
· Whoever wishes to join Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) was free to do so and likewise whoever wished to join the mushrikeen of the Quraysh was also free to do so;
· If anyone from the Quraysh joins Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) without his parent's or guardian's permission, he should be sent back to the Quraysh, but should any of Muhammad's followers return to the Quraysh, he was not to be sent back. (Safiur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (ar-Raheequl-Makhtum) Darusalam, 2002, p.403) The treaty was significant in that the Quraysh began to recognise the Muslims legitimate existence and began to deal with them on equal terms. Safiur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri notes in his biography of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) pp.407-408: "The Muslims did not have in mind to seize people's property or kill them through bloody wars, nor did they ever think of using any compulsive approaches in their efforts to propagate Islam, on the contrary their sole target was to provide an atmosphere of freedom in ideology or religion:

{Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve.}", [Soorah al-Kahf, Aayah 29] the Muslims, on the other hand, had the opportunity to spread Islam over areas not then explored. When there was the peace agreement, war was abolished, and men met and consulted each together, none talked about Islam intelligently without entering it; within two years following the conclusion of the treaty, twice as many people entered Islam than ever before. This is supported by the fact that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) went out to al-Hudaybiyah with only 1400 men, but when he set out to liberate Makkah, two years later, he had 10,000 men with him. [Translator's Note]

[8] This is for those Muslims who have entered a non-Muslim country and also those Muslims who were born and raised within non-Muslim countries. [Translator's Note]

[9] This is one of the areas in which the takfeerees and jihaadees contradict themselves. For they argue about the evil of a Muslim ruler due to a perceived allegiance to the kuffaar and their ways, yet they do the every same, if not worse, by: running to kuffaar countries, consuming large sums of kuffaar state benefit handouts; taking welfare allowances from "HRM's" benevolence; paying all required taxes; sending their children to kuffaar hospitals and entertainment centres and the likes, yet do not also see all of this has "loving the kuffaar" or as emphasising the weakness of the Muslims!? Indeed, many of them even claim that what they do is merely part of their "jihaad efforts"!!? [Translator's Note]

[10] Aboo Jandal (radi Allaahu 'anhu) was brutally chained and was suffering great hardship and oppression. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) and the companions (radi Allaahu 'anhum) tried to secure his release but Aboo Jandal's father Suhayl was unyielding and would not hand Aboo Jandal over due to the treaty which had been agreed between the Prophet and the mushrikeen of Quraysh. Aboo Jandal (radi Allaahu 'anhu) did not want to remain with the mushrikeen yet the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) had to honour his word and adhere to the agreement. [Translator's Note]

[11] Time Magazine (August 24 1998, vol. 152, no.8, p.12) noted once that: Israel is an undeclared nuclear power that is thought to have over 200 warheads it was also active in the production of plutonium and highly enriched uranium, the makings of nuclear bombs. Israel wishes to maintain a certain ambiguity around its nuclear status. [Translator's Note]

The Evils of Terrorism

Preface
The Evils of Terrorism Author: Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab al-'Aqeel - Professor of 'Aqeedah at the College of Da'wah, Islamic University of Madeenah Translation: AbdulHaq ibn Kofi ibn Kwesi ibn Kwaku al-Ashanti This lecture was given on Saturday August 20th 2005 via tele-link at Masjid Ibn Taymeeyah (Brixton Mosque, London) and was translated at the masjid by Umar al-Jamaykee (a graduate of the Faculty of Hadeeth (Prophetic Traditions) Sciences, Islamic University of Madeenah).

Wednesday, 23 December 2009

PREFACE - MUQADIMAH

إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلَّهِ نَحْمَدُهُ وَنَسْتَعِيْنُهُ وَنَسْتَغْفِرُهْ وَنَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنْ شُرُوْرِ أَنْفُسِنَا وَمِنْ سَيِّئَاتِ أَعْمَالِنَا، مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللهُ فَلاَ مُضِلَّ لَهُ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلاَ هَادِيَ لَهُ. وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيْكَ لَهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُوْلُهُ.


al-Hamdu-Lillaahi Rabbil-'Aalameen was-Salaatu was-Salaamu 'alaa Ashrafil-Anbiyaa.e wal-Mursaleen, wa ba'd: as-Salaam 'alaykum wa-Rahmatullaahe wa-Barakaatuhu,
Welcome to my blog, have a nice to meet you all over the world - moslem or non moslem. Last but not least please read slowly, patient and carefully.

Fatwa-Online is pleased to present a collection of the statements of the most Senior Scholars of Islam of our time regarding the important issues concerning terrorism, hijacking, suicide bombings and similar evil acts.

Many inaccuracies have been published in the media about Islam and terrorism, and it is hoped that this publication will go towards correcting these and many other inaccuracies that exist today.

This publication is intended as a reference to all those seeking clarification on the position of Islam towards terrorism, and in this regard I encourage everyone, in particular the media, to freely copy-and-paste this information in their publications.

Much time and effort has gone into preparing this publication for FREE distribution and hence it is anticipated it will prove to be of immense value to the Muslims and non-Muslims alike, inshaa.-Allaah. Therefore, whoever finds any typographical mistake(s) in the following work, then please write to me (at my email address) indicating the mistake(s) and its place.

{Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error...}, [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 286] I thank all those who will point out these mistakes with the intention of seeking Allaah's Pleasure, and of correcting this publication. Indeed, Allaah is Surety over what I say. May Allaah humble us all to make this effort pure, seeking His Face alone. Certainly to Him is our return.

{Our Lord accept from us, certainly you are the All-Hearing and All-Knowing}, [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 127]

{Our Lord forgive me and my parents, and the believers on the Day when the reckoning will be established}, [Soorah Ibraaheem, Aayah 41]

«With the assistance of Allaah the Most High, and all Praise be to Allaah by whose favour good works are accomplished», [Ibn as-Sunnee in A'maal al-Yawm wal-Laylah; al-Haakim declared it Saheeh 1/499; al-Albaanee declared it Saheeh in Saheeh al-Jaami' 4/201] wa Billaahit-Towfeeq...

Abu 'Abdullaah Mohammed Akhtar Chaudhry abuabdullaah@fatwa-online.com Graduate of the Faculty of Sharee'ah (Islamic Law) Islamic University of Madeenah Madeenah, Saudi Arabia
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"islamagainstterrorism.chm" was first published on al-Ithnayn 8 Sha'baan 1425 / Monday 12 September 2005

.......... (i) HTML HELP (file extension .CHM) is the default online help format for Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000 and Windows XP. Older Windows versions (Windows 95 and Windows NT) require the Microsoft HTMP HELP viewer. In most cases, this viewer is already installed, because recent Microsoft products (MS Office) include it.

muhammad eldi mukmin bin ismail ibrahim bin ibrahim
eldimukmin@gmail.com

Misconception: The Earth is flat






Misconception: The Earth is flat


Question: The following letter reached the program (broadcast program) from Kenya, sent by our brother, the student, Ibraheem Muhammad Al-Awwal. The brother says, "I heard the program Nurun 'alad-Darb (A Light upon the Path) and I benefited greatly from it. Therefore, I wanted to send these questions to you all because their topics are very perplexing to me. The first is: Is the earth round or flat?" Response: According to the people knowledge (scholars of Islam) the earth is round, for indeed Ibn Hazm and a group of other scholars mentioned that there is a consensus (unanimous agreement, Ijmaa') among the people of knowledge that it is round. This means that all of it is connected together thus making the form of the entire planet like a ball. However, Allaah has spread out surface for us and He has placed firm mountains upon it and placed the animals and the seas upon it as a mercy for us. For this reason, Allaah said: {And (do they not look) at the Earth, how it was made FLAT (Sutihat)}, [Soorah al-Ghaashiyyah, Aayah 20] Therefore, it (the Earth) has been made flat for us in regards to its surface, so that people can live on it and so that people can be comfortable upon it. The fact that it is round does not prevent that its surface has been made flat. This is because something that is round and very large, if it is made flat (its surface), then its surface will become very vast or broad (i.e. having a flat appearance). Yes." Shaykh Ibn Baaz

Misconception: Islam is Fatalistic



Misconception: Islam is Fatalistic

Most Muslims find it rather odd that their religion, which strikes a beautiful balance between faith and action, could be accused of being "fatalistic". Perhaps this misconception came about because Muslims are taught to say "Praise be to God!" whenever anything good or bad happens. This is because Muslims know that everything comes from Almighty God, who is the All-Knowing Sustainer of the Universe, and that since a Muslim should rely completely on God, whatever happened must have been for the better. However, this does not mean that Muslims are not taught to take action in life, quite simply the opposite is true. Islam requires not only faith, but action -- such as regular prayer, fasting and charity. To be more precise, in Islam actions are part of one's faith. Islam totally rejects the extreme beliefs of some religions that teach that you shouldn't go to a doctor when sick, but only pray for God to heal you. Islam's outlook is very positive, since it teaches that human beings can take positive action in this life. This was certainly what was taught by Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, to his followers - since they obviously took the action of spreading Islam from Spain to Morocco in a very short period of time. Even though Islam teaches that God knows what human beings will do before they do it, human beings still have free will. Certainly God, who is All-Knowing and All-Wise, knows what is going to happen to everyone before it happens -- to deny this would be a denial of God Himself. However, if human-beings did not have free will, it would be ridiculous and un-just for God to demand that they do certain things and believe certain things. Far from being "fatalistic", Islam teaches that a human-being's main purpose in life is to be God-conscious. Due to this, Muslims worry less about material matters and view their earthly life in a proper perspective. This is due to the fact that Islam clearly teaches that if people worship and depend on Almighty God alone, then they have nothing to worry about - since God wants what is best for them. True freedom, from the Islamic perspective, does not mean aimlessly following all of your human desires for food, drink, wealth and sex. On the contrary, freedom means being able to control one's base desires and fulfilling them in a proper and legal way. This brings one's desires in tune with what God wants for us - only then is a person truly free!

Misconception: Muslims Hate Jesus



Misconception: Muslims Hate Jesus

Many non-Muslims are surprised to find out that according to Muslim belief, Jesus, the son of Mary, is one of the greatest messengers of God. Muslims are taught to love Jesus, and a person cannot be a Muslim without believing in the virgin birth and miracles of Jesus Christ, peace be upon him. Muslims believe these things about Jesus not because of the Bible or any other religion, but simply because the Holy Qur.aan says these things about him. However, Muslims always emphasise that the miracles of Jesus, and all other prophets, were by "God's permission". This having been said, many Christians feel to not believe that Jesus is the "Son of God", "God Incarnate" or the "Third Person" of the Trinity. This is because the Qur.aan clearly says that Almighty God does not have a "Son" --- neither allegorically, physically, metaphorically or metaphysically. The Pure Monotheism of Islam rejects the notion of "defining" God (which is basically what the "Doctrine of the Trinity" does), saying that someone is "like" God or equal to him, or praying to someone else besides God. Also, Islam teaches that titles such as "Lord" and "Saviour" are due to God alone. In order to avoid misunderstanding, it should be clarified that when Muslims criticise the Bible or the teachings of Christianity, they are not attacking "God's Word" or Jesus Christ, peace be upon him. From the Muslim point of view, they are defending Jesus and God's Word, which they have in the form of the Qur.aan. Muslim criticism is targeted at writings that some people claim are God's word, but Muslim's simply don't accept their claim that they are really God's word. Additionally, Christian doctrines such as the Trinity and the Atonement are criticised by Muslims precisely because they did not originate from Jesus, peace be upon him. In this way, Muslims are the true followers of Jesus, peace be upon him, because they defend him from the exaggerations of the Christians and teach the Pure Monotheism that Jesus himself followed.

Misconception: Islam was spread by the sword



Misconception: Islam was spread by the sword

Many non-Muslims, when they think about Islam, picture religious fanatics on camels with a sword in one hand and a Qur.aan in the other. This myth, which was made popular in Europe during the Crusades, is totally baseless. First of all, the Holy Qur.aan clearly says "Let there be no compulsion in religion". In addition to this, Islam teaches that a person's faith must be pure and sincere, so it is certainly not something that can be forced on someone. In debunking the myth that Islam was "spread by the sword", the (non-Muslim) historian De Lacy O' Leary wrote: "History makes it clear, however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of the sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever accepted." (Islam at the Crossroads, London, 1923, p. 8.). It should also be known that Muslims ruled Spain for roughly 800 years. During this time, and up to when they were finally forced out, the non-Muslims there were alive and flourishing. Additionally, Christian and Jewish minorities have survived in the Muslim lands of the Middle East for centuries. Countries such as Egypt, Morocco, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan all have Christian and/or Jewish populations. If Islam taught that all people are supposed to be killed or forced to become Muslims, how did all of these non-Muslims survive for so long in the middle of the Islamic Empire? Additionally, if one considers the small number of Muslims who initially spread Islam from Spain and Morocco in the West to India and China in the East, one would realise that they were far too few to force people to become converts of a religion against their will. Additionally, the great empire and civilisation established by the Muslims had great staying power, its citizens were proud to be part of it. The spread of Islam stands in contrast to the actions of the followers of Christianity, who since the time of the Emperor Constantine have made liberal use of the sword - often basing their conduct on Biblical verses. This was especially true of the colonisation of South America and Africa, where native peoples were systematically wiped-out or forced to convert. It is also interesting to note that when the Mongols invaded and conquered large portions of the Islamic Empire, instead of destroying the religion, they adopted it. This is a unique occurrence in history - the conquerors adopting the religion of the conquered! Since they were the victors, they certainly could not have been forced to become Muslims! Ask any of the over one billion Muslims alive in the world today whether they were forced! The largest Muslim country in the world today is Indonesia -- and there were never any battles fought there! So where was the sword? How could someone be forced to adhere to a spiritually rewarding and demanding religion like Islam?

Misconception: Muhammad Wrote the Qur.aan



Misconception: Muhammad Wrote the Qur.aan

In addressing this misconception, it is interesting to note that no other religious scripture claims to be the direct word of Almighty God in total and as clear and as often as the Holy Qur.aan. As the Qur.aan clearly says: "if had been written by man, you would have found many discrepancies therein". At the time the Qur.aan was revealed, the Arabs recognised that the language of the Qur.aan was unique and that it was distinctly different from the language normally used by the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. The Arabs of that time, by the way, were known for their beautiful poetry and Muhammad was known to be an illiterate man! The Qur.aan clearly says that Muhammad was unable to read and write, so if this wasn't true, certainly his contemporaries would have protested and rejected him. However, there are no reports of this. Certainly there were people who rejected Muhammad's message, just like other prophets were rejected, but none for this reason. On the contrary, Muhammad, peace be upon him, had thousands of loyal followers and the results of their efforts spread Islam from Spain to China in just over a century! It is also interesting to note that even though the Qur.aan is not poetry, the Arabs more or less gave up writing poetry after it was revealed. It could be said that the Qur.aan is the piece of Arabic literature par execellance, and Muhammad's contemporaries realised that they couldn't out do it. Additionally, it is easy to prove that Muhammad did not possess a great deal of the knowledge which is expounded in the Qur.aan: such as knowledge of historical events, previous prophets and natural phenomenon. The Qur.aan says in several places that Muhammad and his people did not know these things, so again, if this wasn't true, certainly his contemporaries would have rejected his claims. Suffice it to say that not only is the Qur.aan the most memorised and well preserved scripture on earth, it is also unequalled in eloquence, spirtual impact, clarity of message and the purity of its truth.

Misconception: Islam Degrades Women



Misconception: Islam Degrades Women

Even though many aspects of Islam are misunderstood by non-Muslims, the ignorance, misinformation and incorrect assumptions that are made in regards to Islam's treatment of women are probably the most severe. Numerous verses of the Qur.aan make it clear that men and women are equal in the sight of God. According to the teachings of Islam, the only thing that distinguishes people in the sight of God is their level of God-consciousness. Due to this, many people are surprised to find out that Islamic Law guaranteed rights to women over 1400 years ago and that women in Europe and America only obtained their rights recently. For example, Islam clearly teaches that a woman is a full-person under the law, and is the spiritual equal of a male. Also, according to Islamic Law, women have the right to own property, operate a business and receive equal pay for equal work. Women are allowed total control of their wealth, they cannot be married against their will and they are allowed to keep their own name when married. Additionally, they have the right to inherit property and to have their marriage dissolved in the case of neglect or mistreatment. Also, Islam does not consider a woman an "evil temptress", and thus does not blame women for the "original sin". Women in Islam participate in all forms of worship that men participate in. Actually, the rights that Islam gave to women over 1400 years ago were almost unheard of in the West until the 1900's. Less than fifty years ago in England and America, a woman could not buy a house or car without the co-signature of her father or husband! Additionally, Islam gives great respect to women and their role in society; it gives them the right to own property, marry who they want and many other rights. Also, it should be mentioned that the Prophet Muhammad's mission stopped many of the horrible practices in regards to women that were present in the society of his time. For example, the Qur.aan put an end to the pagan Arab practice of killing their baby daughters when they were born. Additionally, Islam put restrictions on the unrestricted polygamy of the Arabs of the time, and put many laws in place to protect the well-being of women. Today, most of the so-called reforms in the status of women came about after the West abandoned religion for secularism. Even those in the West who claim to follow the so-called "Judaeo-Christian tradition" really follow the values of Western liberalism, but just to a lesser degree than their more liberal countrymen. If women in the Muslim World today don't have their rights, it is not because Islam did not give them to them. The problem is that in many places alien traditions have come to overshadow the teachings of Islam, either through ignorance or the impact of Colonialisation.

Misconception: Islam is a Religion Only for Arabs



Misconception: Islam is a Religion Only for Arabs

The fastest way to prove that this is completely false is to state the fact that only about 15% to 20% of the Muslims in the world are Arabs. There are more Indian Muslims than Arab Muslims, and more Indonesian Muslims than Indian Muslims! Believing that Islam is only a religion for Arabs is a myth that was spread by the enemies of Islam early in its history. This mistaken assumption is possibly based on the fact that most of the first generation of Muslims were Arabs, the Qur.aan is in Arabic and the Prophet Muhammad was an Arab. However, both the teachings of Islam and the history of its spread show that the early Muslims made every effort to spread their message of Truth to all nations, races and peoples. Furthermore, it should be clarified that not all Arabs are Muslims and not all Muslims are Arabs. An Arab can be a Muslim, Christian, Jew, atheist - or of any other religion or ideology. Also, many countries that some people consider to be "Arab" are not "Arab" at all, such as Turkey and Iran (Persia). The people who live in these countries speak languages other than Arabic as their native tongues and are of a different ethnic heritage than the Arabs. It is important to realise that from the very beginning of the mission of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, his followers came from a wide spectrum of individuals; there was Bilaal - the African slave; Suhayb - the Byzantine Roman; Ibn Saylam - the Jewish Rabbi; and Salmaan - the Persian. Since religious truth is eternal and unchanging, and mankind is one universal brotherhood, Islam teaches that Almighty God's revelations to mankind have always been consistent, clear and universal. The Truth of Islam is meant for all people regardless of race, nationality or linguistic background. Taking a look at the Muslim World, from Nigeria to Bosnia and from Malaysia to Afghanistan is enough to prove that Islam is a Universal message for all of mankind, not to mention the fact that significant numbers of Europeans and Americans of all races and ethnic backgrounds are entering the fold of Islam.

Misconception: Muslims Worship Muhammad



Misconception: Muslims Worship Muhammad

According to Islamic belief, the Prophet Muhammad was the last Messenger of God. He, like all of God's prophets and messengers - such as Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus -- was only a human being. Christians came to the mistaken assumption that Muslims worship Muhammad by formulating an incorrect analogy - they worship Jesus so they assumed Muslims worship Muhammad. This is one of the reasons that they called Muslims by the incorrect name "Mohammedans" for so many years! Muhammad, like Jesus, never claimed divine status. He called people to worship only Almighty God, and he continually emphasised his humanity so that people would not fall into the same errors as Christians did in regards to Jesus. In order to prevent his deification (being referred to as a god worthy of worship), the Prophet Muhammad always said to refer to him as "the Messenger of God and His slave". Muhammad was chosen to be God's final messenger, to communicate the message not only in words but to be a living example of the message. Muslims love and respect him because he was of the highest moral character and he brought the Truth from God - which is the Pure Monotheism of Islam. Even when Islam was in its very early stages, God revealed that Muhammad "was sent as a mercy to all of mankind" - thus informing us that the message of Islam would become very widespread. Muslims strive to follow the great example of Muhammad, peace be upon him, but they do not worship him in any way. Additionally, Islam teaches Muslims to respect all of God's prophets and messengers - but respecting and loving them does not mean worshipping them. All true Muslims realize that all worship and prayer must be directed to Almighty God alone. Suffice it to say that worshipping Muhammad, or anyone else, along with Almighty God is considered to be the worst sin in Islam. Even if a person claims to be Muslim, but they worship and pray to other than Almighty God, this cancels and nullifies their Islam. The Declaration of Faith of Islam makes it clear that Muslims are taught only to worship God. This declaration is as follows: "There is nothing divine or worthy of being worshipped except for Almighty God, and Muhammad is the Messenger and Servant of God".

Misconception: Muslims Worship a Different God



Misconception: Muslims Worship a Different God

First of all, there is only One God who created the Universe and all of mankind. Throughout history, people have created false gods in their minds and come up with false ideas about Almighty God, but regardless of this there is still only One True God - and He alone is worthy of worship. Unfortunately, some non-Muslims have come to incorrectly believe that Muslims worship a different God than Jews and Christians. This might be due to the fact that Muslims sometimes refer to God as "Allaah", but also because over the centuries there have been many lies and distortions spread by the enemies of Islam. In actuality, Muslims worship the God of Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus --- the same God as Christians and Jews. The word "Allaah" is simply the Arabic word for Almighty God and it is the same word that Arabic speaking Christians and Jews use to refer to God. If you pick up an Arabic translation of the Christian Bible, you will see the word "Allaah" where "God" is used in English. For more information on the word "Allaah", please refer to the article: Who is Allaah? But even though Muslims, Jews and Christians believe in the same God, their concepts about Him differ quite a bit. For example, Muslims reject the idea of the Trinity or that God has become "incarnate" in the world. Also, the teachings of Islam do not rely on or appeal to "mystery" or "paradox", they are straightforward and clear. Islam teaches that God is Merciful, Loving and Compassionate and that He has no need to become man (nor do humans need for Him to). One of the unique aspects of Islam is that it teaches that man can have a personal and fulfilling relationship with Almighty God without compromising the transcendence of God. In Islam there is no ambiguity in Divinity, God is God and man is man. Muslims believe that God is the "Most Merciful", and that he deals directly with human-beings without the need of any intermediary. Actually, the phrase "In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful" is one of the most repeated verses in the Holy Qur.aan. Additionally, the pure and straightforward teachings of Islam demand that Almighty God be approached directly and without intermediaries. This is because Muslims believe that God is completely in control of everything and that He can bestow His Grace and Mercy on His creatures as He pleases - no Atonement, Incarnation or blood sacrifice is necessary. In summary, Islam calls people to submit to the One True God and to worship Him alone without any partners.

Misconception: The Islamic Threat



Misconception: The Islamic Threat

In recent years, a great deal of attention in the media have been given to the threat of "Islamic Fundamentalism". Unfortunately, due to a twisted mixture of biased reporting in the Western media and the actions of some ignorant Muslims, the word "Islam" has become almost synonymous with "terrorism". However, when one analyses the situation, the question that should come to mind is: Do the teachings of Islam encourage terrorism? The answer: Certainly not! Islam totally forbids the terrorist acts that are carried out by some misguided people. It should be remembered that all religions have cults and misguided followers, so it is their teachings that should be looked at, not the actions of a few individuals. Unfortunately, in the media, whenever a Muslim commits a heinous act, he is labeled a "Muslim terrorist". However, when Serbs murder and rape innocent women in Bosnia, they are not called "Christian terrorists", nor are the activities in Northern Ireland labeled "Christian terrorism". Also, when right-wing Christians in the U. S. bomb abortion clinics, they are not called "Christian terrorists". Reflecting on these facts, one could certainly conclude that there is a double-standard in the media! Although religious feelings play a significant role in the previously mentioned "Christian" conflicts, the media does not apply religious labels because they assume that such barbarous acts have nothing to do with the teachings of Christianity. However, when something happens involving a Muslim, they often try to put the blame on Islam itself - and not the misguided individual. Certainly, Islamic Law (Sharee'ah) allows war - any religion or civilisation that did not would never survive - but it certainly does not condone attacks against innocent people, women or children. The Arabic word "jihaad", which is often translated as "Holy War", simply means "to struggle". The word for "war" in Arabic is "harb", not "jihaad". "Struggling", i.e. "making jihaad", to defend Islam, Muslims or to liberate a land where Muslims are oppressed is certainly allowed (and even encouraged) in Islam. However, any such activities must be done according to the teachings of Islam. Islam also clearly forbids "taking the law into your own hands", which means that individual Muslims cannot go around deciding who they want to kill, punish or torture. Trial and punishment must be carried out by a lawful authority and a knowledgeable judge. Also, when looking at events in the Muslim World, it should be kept in mind that a long period of colonialism ended fairly recently in most Muslim countries. During this time, the people in these countries were culturally, materially and religiously exploited - mostly by the so-called "Christian" nations of the West. This painful period has not really come to an end in many Muslim countries, where people are still under the control of foreign powers or puppet regimes supported by foreign powers. Also, through the media, people in the West are made to believe that tyrants like Saddam Hussein in Iraq and Moamar Qaddafi in Libya are "Islamic" leaders - when just the opposite is true. Neither of these rulers even profess Islam as an ideology, but only use Islamic slogans to manipulate their powerless populations. They have about as much to do with Islam as Hitler had to do with Christianity! In reality, many Middle Eastern regimes which people think of as being "Islamic" oppress the practice of Islam in their countries. So suffice it to say that "terrorism" and killing innocent people directly contradicts the teachings of Islam.

Misconceptions About Women in Islam - Why Two Women Witnesses?



Misconceptions About Women in Islam - Why Two Women Witnesses?

A question that repeatedly arises is that concerning the 'position of women in Islam'. Muslim scholars have been able with great success - despite the onslaught of distortion and mis-representation - to demonstrate the true position of Muslim women; especially of women's liberation in the advent of Islam. The Islamic ruling on issues such as inheritance, the right to earn, the right to own property etc. have reinforced this position and have been prescribed by Allaah - the One True God - long before western nations even thought of such concepts! The issue of two women witnesses in place of one man is the concern of the present treatise. As will become clear to the sincere and objective reader, the intellectual status of a Muslim woman is neither marred nor degraded by the commandment that if two Muslim male witnesses are not available then one Muslim male and two Muslim females should be invited to witness. Rather, this injunction is in perfect harmony with the nature and psychology of the woman as will become evident through quotations from psychologists, psychiatrists and medical research. The passage of the Qur.aan (Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 282) in which the above-mentioned requirement is made has usury, capital and debtor difficulties as its theme. Allaah grants guidelines in matters relating to monetary obligations. Then business transactions are dealt with. In this section, the requirement to commit all transactions into writing is stated most emphatically: {Reduce them to writing...} The section after this describes the responsibility of the scribe, or in modern parlance, the person responsible for drawing up the agreement. The following section describes the responsibility and the obligation of the person incurring the liability. The section after this explains how if the party that is liable cannot effectively draw up the contract - out of being deficient or weak mentally, or being unable to dictate - then his or her guardian should help draw out the contract and choose two suitable witnesses to observe. It must be understood that this situation arises if it is not possible for the liable party to draw out the contract by him/herself. The condition to put things into writing is still supreme. The next section then explains that two men should be called to witness and if two men are not available: {And if there are not two men...}, then a man and two women. The legislation then continues and reminds most emphatically that one should not be complacent about putting ALL agreements into writing - no matter whether these agreements are major or minor as this is more JUST in the sight of Allaah and more reliable as evidence. The passage of the Qur.aan further explains that for practical reasons it may not always be possible to commit on-the-spot agreements into writing. In this case, it is also recommended that it be witnessed. The section which follows then lays down the guidelines which should be followed in the event that no witnesses are present. The purpose in giving the above outline is to draw attention to the fact the question of women witnesses relates, in this instance, to commercial agreements and is not a STATEMENT ON THEIR STATUS. Let's look at the section under investigation in more detail. Allaah said: {And get two witnesses of your own men, and if there are not two men then a man and two women such as you choose for witnesses - so that if one of them errs, the other can remind her...}, [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 182]


A number of questions (as well as eyebrows!) are raised when this section of the passage is read. The questions often posed include:

* Do women have weaker memories than men?

* Why should two women be needed in the place of one man?

* Are women inferior to men? One must remember that Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) was neither a physiologist, a psychiatrist and nor a surgeon.


He was an illiterate and could neither read nor write. He passed on the revelation exactly as he received it. Allaah, the Creator, with His infinite wisdom gave the directives best suited to humankind. He is the Creator, therefore, He knows man better than a man himself. In this scientific age we can explore the significance of this legislation. A great deal has been discovered since the early days of Islam. And each day of advancement brings about a better understanding of the the last and final revelation from the Creator, Allaah to the creation, humankind. As women, we are aware of the cyclical psychological strains that a woman has to encounter every month. The symptoms during early pregnancy, ante-natal and post-natal depressions, the phenomenon of menopause, the physiological and psychological problems due to infertility and last but not least the psychological problems faced after miscarriage. It is under these situations that women can experience extraordinary psychological strains giving rise to depression, lack of concentration, slow-mindedness and SHORT TERM MEMORY LOSS. Let us examine these episodes in a bit more detail and with medical references from the scientific world. PMT is an umbrella term for more than 140 different symptoms and there is a lot of evidence that it causes a lot of unhappiness in many women, and consequently, to their families. Psychiatry in Practice, April 1983 issue states: "Forty percent of women suffer from pre-menstrual syndrome in some form and one in if our women have their lives severely disrupted by it. Dr Jill Williams, general practitioner from Bury, gives guidelines on how to recognise patients at risk and suggests a suitable treatment."[1] In the same issue, George Beaumont reporting on the workshop held at the Royal College of Obstreticians and Gynaecologists in London on pre-menstrual syndrome, says: "Some authorities would argue that 80 percent of women have some degree of breast and abdominal discomfort which is pre-menstrual but that only about 10 percent complain to their doctors - and then only because of severe tenderness of the breasts and mental depression... Other authorities have suggested that pre-menstrual syndrome is a new problem, regular ovulation for 20 years or more being a phenomenon caused by 'civilisation', 'medical progress', and an altered concept of the role of women."[2] In its examination of the occurrence of physical and psychological change during the period just prior to the onset of menstruation we read in Psychological Medicine: "Many studies have reported an increased likelihood of various negative affects during the pre-menstrual period. In this affective category are many emotional designations including irritability, depression, tension, anxiety, sadness, insecurity, lethargy, loneliness, tearfulness, fatigue, restlessness and changes of mood. In the majority of studies, investigators have found it difficult to distinguish between various negative affects, and only a few have allowed themselves to be excessively concerned with the differences which might or might not exist between affective symptoms."[3] In the same article dealing with Pre-menstrual Behavioural Changes we read: "A significant relationship between the pre-menstrual phase of the cycle and a variety of specific and defined forms of behaviour has been reported in a number of studies. For the purpose of their review, these forms of behaviour have been grouped under the headings of aggressive behaviour, illness behaviour and accidents, performance on examination and other tests and sporting performance."[4] The lengthy review portrays how female behaviour is affected in these situations. In 'The Pre-menstrual Syndrome', C. Shreeves writes: "Reduced powers of concentration and memory are familiar aspects of the pre-menstrual syndrome and can only be remedied by treating the underlying complaint." This does not mean, of course, that women are mentally deficient absolutely. It just means that their mental faculties can become affected at certain times in the biological cycle. Shreeves also writes: "As many as 80 percent of women are aware of some degree of pre-menstrual changes, 40 percent are substantially disturbed by them, and between 10 and 20 percent are seriously disabled as a result of the syndrome." Furthermore, women face the problem of ante-natal and post-natal depression, both of which cause extreme cycles of depression in some cases. Again, these recurring symptoms naturally affect the mind, giving rise to drowsiness and dopey memory. On the subject of pregnancy in Psychiatry in Practice, October-November 1986, we learn that: "In an experiment 'Cox' found that 16 percent of a sample of 263 pregnant women were suffering from clinically significant psychiatric problems. Eight percent had a depressive neurosis and 1.9 percent had phobic neurosis. This study showed that the proportion of pregnant women with psychiatric problems was greater than that found in the control group but the difference only tended towards significance."[5] Regarding the symptoms during the post-natal cycle Dr. Ruth Sagovsky writes: "The third category of puerperal psychiatric problems is post-natal depression. It is generally agreed that between10 to 15 percent of women become clinically depressed after childbirth. These mothers experience a variety of symptoms but anxiety, especially over the baby, irritability, and excessive fatigue are common. Appetite is usually decreased and often there are considerable sleep difficulties. The mothers lose interest in the things they enjoyed prior to the baby's birth, and find that their concentration is impaired. They often feel irrational guilt, and blame themselves for being 'bad' wives and mothers. Fifty percent of these women are not identified as having a depressive illness. Unfortunately, many of them do not understand what ails them and blame their husbands, their babies or themselves until the relationships are strained to an alarming degree."[6] "... Making the diagnosis of post-natal depression is not always easy. Quite often the depression is beginning to become a serious problem around three months postpartum when frequent contact with the health visitor is diminishing. The mother may not present with depressed mood. If she comes to the health centre presenting the baby as the patient, the true nature of the problem can be missed. When the mother is continually anxious about the baby in spite of reassurance, then the primary health care worker needs to be aware of the possibility of depression. Sometimes these mothers present with marital difficulties, and it is easy to muddle cause and effect, viewing the accompanying low mood as part of the marital problem. Sometimes, only when the husband is seen as well does it become obvious that it is a post-natal depressive illness which has led to the deterioration in the marriage."[7] Again there is a need to study the effects of the menopause about which very little is known even to this day. This phase in a woman's life can start at any time from the mid-thirties to the mid-fifties and can last for as long as 15 years. Writing about the pre-menopausal years, C.B. Ballinger states: "Several of the community surveys indicate a small but significant increase in psychiatric symptoms in women during the five years prior to the cessation of menstrual periods... The most obvious clinical feature of this transitional phase of menstrual function is the alteration in menstrual pattern, the menstrual cycle becoming shorter with age, and variability in cycle length become very prominent just prior to the cessation of menstruation. Menorrhagia is a common complaint at this time, and is associated with higher than normal levels of psychiatric disturbance."[8] On the phenomenon of menopause in an article in Newsweek International, May 25th 1992, Dr. Jennifer al-Knopf, Director of the Sex and Marital Therapy Programme of Northwestern University writes: "...Women never know what their body is doing to them... some reporting debilitating symptoms from hot flashes to night sweat, sleeplessness, irritability, mood swings, short term memory loss, migraine, headaches, urinary inconsistence and weight gain. Most such problems can be traced to the drop-off in the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone, both of which govern the ovarian cycle. But every woman starts with a different level of hormones and loses them at different rates. The unpredictability is one of the most upsetting aspects. Women never know what their body is going to do to them..." Then there are the psychiatric aspects of infertility and miscarriage. On the subject of infertility, Dr. Ruth Sagovsky writes: "Depression, anger and guilt are common reactions to bereavement. In infertility there is the added pain of there being nobody to grieve for. Families and friends may contribute to the feeling of isolation by passing insensitive comments. The gynaecologist and GPs have to try to help these couples against a backdrop of considerable distress."[9] On the subject of miscarriage the above article continues: "Miscarriage is rarely mentioned when considering abortion. However, miscarriage can at times have profound psychological sequelae and it is important that those women affected receive the support they need. Approximately one-fifth of all pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion and the effects are poorly recognised. If however, the miscarriage occurs in the context of infertility, the emotional reaction may be severe. The level of grief will depend on the meaning of pregnancy to the couple."[10] Also, the fact that women are known to be more sensitive and emotional than men must not be overlooked. It is well known, for example, that under identical circumstances women suffer much greater anxiety than men. Numerous medical references on this aspect of female behaviour can be given but to quote as a specimen, we read in 'Sex Differences in Mental Health' that: "Surveys have found different correlates of anxiety and neuroticism in the two sexes. Women and men do not become equally upset by the same things, and being upset does not have the same effect in men as in women. Ekehammer (1974; Ekehammer, Magnusson and Ricklander, 1974) using data from 116 sixteen-year-olds, did a factor analysis on self-reported anxiety. Of the eighteen different responses indicating anxiety (sweating palms, faster heart rate, and so on) females reported experiencing twelve of them significantly more often than males. Of the anxiety-producing situations studied, females reported experiencing significantly more anxiety than males reported in fourteen of them."[11] It is in light of the above findings of psychologist, psychiatrists and researchers that the saying of Allaah, the Exalted: {And get two witnesses of your own men, and if there are not two men then a man and two women such as you choose for witnesses - SO THAT IF ONE OF THEM ERRS, THE OTHER CAN REMIND HER...}, [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 182] ...can be understood. One must also bear in mind that forgetfulness can be an asset. A woman has to be put up with children presenting all kinds of emotional problems and a woman is certainly known to be more resilient than man. The aim of presenting these research findings on a number of aspects related with the theme is to indicate that a woman by her biological constitution faces such problems. It does not however make her inferior to man but it does illustrate that she is different. Viewed in this way, it can only lead one to the conclusion that Allaah knows His creation the best and has prescribed precise laws in keeping with the nature of humankind. Allaah, the Creator is - as always - All-Knowing and man (or the disbeliever in Allaah and the final, perfected, revealed way of life, Islam) is - as usual - either ignorant and arrogant.

Footnotes [1] Psychiatry in Practice, April 1993, p.14. [2] Psychiatry in Practice, April 1993, p.18. [3] Psychological Medicine, Monograph Supplement 4, 1983, Cambridge University Press, p.6. [4] Psychological Medicine, Monograph Supplement 4, 1983, Cambridge University Press, p.7. [5] Psychiatry in Practice, October-November, 1986, p.6. [6] Psychiatry in Practice, May, 1987, p.18. [7] Psychiatry in Practice, May, 1987, p.18. As has been mentioned above the Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) was neither a psychologist nor a psychiatrist. Rather, he merely conveyed the truth that was revealed to him. It is in the context of this quotation and the one before it that the following saying of the Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) can be understood: «Treat your women kindly. The woman has been created from a rib, and the most curved part of a rib is its upper region. If you try to straighten it you will break it, and if you leave it as it is, it will remain curved. So treat women kindly» And in another narration: «If you try to straighten her you will break her and breaking her means divorce», [Reported by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]. This is very important advice for the man - for him to have patience and not to try to 'reform' the behavioural pattern of the woman during these times i.e. 'to straighten her'. He will not be able to do that, as it is biological in origin. Instead, he should maintain and protect his relationship with her by showing kindness. [8] Psychiatry in Practice, November, 1987, p.26. [9] Psychiatry in Practice, Winter, 1989, p.16. [10] Psychiatry in Practice, Winter, 1989, p.17. [11] Katherine Blick Hoyenga and Kermit T. Hoyenga in 'Sex Differences in Mental Health', p.336.

How Do Muslims View the Nature of Man, the Purpose of Life and the Life Hereafter?

How Do Muslims View the Nature of Man, the Purpose of Life and the Life Hereafter?
In the Holy Qur'aan, God teaches human beings that they were created in order to worship Him, and that the basis of all true worship is God-consciousness. Since the teachings of Islamic encompass all aspects of life and ethics, God-consciousness is encouraged in all human affairs. Islam makes it clear that all human acts are acts of worship if they are done for God alone and in accordance to His Divine Law. As such, worship in Islam is not limited to religious rituals. The teachings of Islam act as a mercy and a healing for the human soul, and such qualities as humility, sincerity, patience and charity are strongly encouraged. Additionally, Islam condemns pride and self-righteousness, since Almighty God is the only judge of human righteousness. The Islamic view of the nature of man is also realistic and well-balanced. Human beings are not believed to be inherently sinful, but are seen as equally capable of both good and evil. Islam also teaches that faith and action go hand-in-hand. God has given people free-will, and the measure of one's faith is one's deeds and actions. However, human beings have also been created weak and regularly fall into sin. This is the nature of the human being as created by God in His Wisdom, and it is not inherently "corrupt" or in need of repair. This is because the avenue of repentance of always open to all human beings, and Almighty God loves the repentant sinner more than one who does not sin at all. The true balance of an Islamic life is established by having a healthy fear of God as well as a sincere belief in His infinite Mercy. A life without fear of God leads to sin and disobedience, while believing that we have sinned so much that God will not possibly forgive us only leads to despair. In light of this, Islam teaches that: only the misguided despair of the Mercy of their Lord. Additionally, the Holy Qur'aan, which was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad, contains a great deal of teachings about the life hereafter and the Day of Judgement. Due to this, Muslims believe that all human beings will ultimately be judged by God for their beliefs and actions in their earthly lives. In judging human beings, Almighty God will be both Merciful and Just, and people will only be judged for what they were capable of. Suffice it to say that Islam teaches that life is a test, and that all human beings will be accountable before God. A sincere belief in the life hereafter is key to leading a well-balanced life and moral. Otherwise, life is viewed as an end in itself, which causes human beings to become more selfish, materialistic and immoral.

The Qur.aan and Noah's Ark



The Qur.aan and Noah's Ark
Martin Wroe, LONDON - Noah's Ark has been found on the Turkish-Iranian border, 32 kilometres from Mount Ararat, according to the leader of a team of scientists that has been investigating the site for six years. The Turkish government is so convinced by the findings that, after years of intransigence, it has designated the site one of special archaeological interest and agreed to its excavation next summer. The remote site contains a buried, ship-like object, resting an altitude of 2,300 metres. At 170 metres long and 45 metres wide, it conforms almost exactly to the 300 cubit by 50 cubit boat that God told Noah to build, according to Genesis 6 in the Bible. On surrounding terrain, the American and Middle Eastern scientists have identified huge stones with holes carved at one end, which they believe are "drogue-stones," dragged behind ships in the ancient world to stabilise them. Radar soundings indicate unusual levels of iron-oxide distribution. Salih Bayraktutan, head of geology at Turkey's Ataturk University, estimates the age of the 'vessel' at more than 100,000 years. "It is a man-made structure and for sure it is Noah's Ark." The site is directly below the mountain of Al Judi, named in the Koran as the Ark's resting place. David Fasold, an American shipwreck specialist with no religious affiliation, has led the investigation. He says subsurface radar surveys of the site have produced "very good pictures." "The radar imagery at about 25 metres down from the stern is so clear that you can count the floorboards between the walls." He believes the team has found the fossilised remains of the upper deck and that the original reed substructure has disappeared. But the findings have infuriated the scores of Christian Ark-hunters who travel to Turkey, convinced the Ark will only be found on Mount Ararat. Fasold, who calls himself an "Arkologist," also argues that it was not a great flood that pushed the Ark into the mountains. He says it was "an astronomical event causing a tectonic upheaval, a tidal bore causing gravitational pull in the ocean waters that forced the boat into the mountains." Some of Fasold's team of geophysicists and geologists are reserving final judgement until the excavation and carbon-dating. But in a British TV series on the environment next month, team member Vendyl Jones, a Middle East archaeologist and inspiration for film character Indiana Jones, says it is "between maybe and probably" that they have found Noah's Ark. The Observer newspaper, 16 January 1994

Prologue: The Quranic verse detailing about the resting place of the Noah's Ark is found in Chapter Hood, verse 44 (Qur.aan 11:44). The verse says: {When the word went forth: "O earth! swallow up thy water and O sky! withhold (thy rain)!" and the water abated and the matter was ended. The Ark rested on Mount Judi and the word went forth: "Away with those who do wrong!"} The 49th verse of the same Chapter says: {Such are some of the stories of the Unseen which We have revealed unto you: before this neither you nor your people knew them. So persevere patiently: for the end is for those who are righteous}

The Muslim's Creed




The Muslim's Creed

Question No.1 Why has Allaah created us?
Answer To worship Him alone and to worship no other besides Him. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And I have not created Jinn and human beings except they should worship Me}, {Soorah adh-Dhaariyaat, Aayah 56] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «The right of Allaah upon slaves is to worship Him and not to associate partners with Him», Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]




Question No.2 How should we worship Allaah?
Answer As Allaah and His Messenger commanded us. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allaah, and worship none but Him alone}, {Soorah al-Bayyinah, Aayah 5] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever does any deed (in religion) which our matter in not in accordance with, it will not be accepted», [Transmitted by Muslim]



Question No.3 Should we worship Allaah with fear and hope?
Answer Yes, we worship Him with fear and hope. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And invoke Him with fear and hope}, {Soorah al-A'raaf, Aayah 56] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «I beseech Allaah to grant me Paradise and I seek refuge in Him from Hellfire», [Transmitted by Abu Daawood]



Question No.4 What is Ihsaan (perfection in worship)? Answer Ihsaan is to be conscious that Allaah sees us during worship. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Who sees you (O Muhammad) when you stand up (alone at night for Tahajjud prayer)}, {Soorah ash-Shu'araa, Aayah's 218] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Ihsaan is to worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him, yet truly He is seeing you», [Transmitted by Muslim]



Question No.5 Why did Allaah send the Messengers? Answer To call mankind to His worship and to reject the worship of anything besides Allaah. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And verily We have sent among every nation a Messenger (proclaiming) worship Allaah alone and avoid Taaghoot (false deities)}, {Soorah an-Nahl, Aayah 36] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «The prophets are brothers and their faith is one», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Question No.6 What is meant by (Tawheed) oneness of Allaah? Answer It means devoting worship to him alone like supplication, vow, judgment. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {So know (O Muhammad) that there is no God except Allaah}, {Soorah Muhammad, Aayah 19] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Let the first thing you invite them to do is to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
Question No.7 What is the meaning of there is no God but Allaah? Answer It means there is no deity that truly deserves to be worshipped except Allaah. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {That is because Allaah, He is the truth and that is which they invoke besides Him is al-Baatil (falsehood, Satan, and all other deities)}, {Soorah al-Hajj, Aayah 62] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever says there is no God except Allaah and rejects whatever is worshipped besides Allaah, his property and blood become sacrosanct and his reckoning with Allaah , the Mighty and Exalted», [Transmitted by Muslim]

Question No.8 What is meant by oneness of names and attributes of Allaah? Answer To confirm the names and attributes as Allaah described them in His Book and as His Messenger described them in authentic Sunnah. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {There is nothing like unto Him and His the All-Hearer, the All-Seer}, {Soorah ash-Shooraa, Aayah 11] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Allaah descends each night to the first heaven», [Transmitted by Ahmad]
Question No.9 What is the benefit of monotheism (oneness of Allaah) to the Muslim? Answer Right guidance in this world and salvation from eternal punishment in the Hereafter. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {It is those who believe (in oneness of Allaah) and confuse not their belief with Thulm (wrong) by worshipping others besides Allaah) for them (only) there is security and they are guided}, {Soorah al-An'aam, Aayah 82] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «The right of worshippers upon Allaah is that He will not punish those who worship none beside Him», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Question No.10 Where is Allaah? Answer Allaah is over the Throne which is above the seven heavens. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {ar-Rahmaan (The Merciful) Istawaa (rose over) the Throne}, {Soorah Taa Haa, Aayah 5] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Allaah wrote out in a book with Him over the throne that His Mercy preceded His Wrath», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree]
Question No.11 Is Allaah with us by His entity or knowledge? Answer Allaah with us by His knowledge, He hears and sees us. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {He (Allaah) said: Fear not, verily I am with you both, Hearing and Seeing}, {Soorah Taa Haa, Aayah 46] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «You call upon the one Who hears, Who is near and is with you», [Transmitted by Muslim]

Question No.12 What is the greatest sin with Allaah? Answer It is the major Shirk (polytheism). Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Verily whoever sets partners with Allaah, then Allaah has forbidden paradise for him and the Fire will be his abode}, {Soorah al-Maa.idah, Aayah 72] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «The Prophet was asked : what is the greater sin , he said: To ascribe partners to Allaah even though he created you», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree]

Question No.13 What is the major shirk (polytheism)? Answer It is to devote any forms of worship to one other than Allaah. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Verily Allaah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives except that to whom He pleases}, {Soorah an-Nisaa., Aayah 48] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «The greatest sins are polytheism etc.», [Transmitted by Muslim]

Question No.14 What is the harm of major shirk? Answer The reason for eternity in Hellfire. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Verily whoever assigns partners (commits Shirk) to Allaah, Allaah makes it impermissible for him to enter al-Jannah}, {Soorah al-Maa.idah, Aayah 72] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever died while joining partners with Allaah (commits Shirk) enters Hellfire», [Transmitted by Muslim]
Question No.15 Are good deeds of any benefit to one who worships others besides Allaah? Answer No, good deeds are of no benefit to those who worship others besides Allaah. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {But if they had joined in worship others with Allaah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them}, {Soorah al-An'aam, Aayah 88] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Who ever does any deed in which he associates partners with Me, I reject him and his Shirk», [Transmitted by Muslim]

Question No.16 Does Shirk exist among Muslims today? Answer Yes, it does exist. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And most of them believe not in Allaah except that they attribute partners (unto Him)}, {Soorah Yoosuf, Aayah 106] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «The doom Day will not occur until some tribes of my Ummah (Islamic nation) have joined the idolaters and they will even worship idols», [Transmitted by at-Tirmidhee]

Question No.17 What is ruling concerning praying (supplicating) to other than Allaah like the dead? Answer Praying to them is a major Shirk. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Invoke not with Allaah another ilaah (God) Lest you be among those who receive punishment}, {Soorah ash-Shu'araa, Aayah 213] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever dies having called upon partners besides Allaah shall enter Hellfire», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree]

Question No.18 Is supplication a form of worship? Answer Yes, supplication is worship. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And your Lord said: Invoke Me, I will respond to your invocation}, {Soorah Ghaafir, Aayah 60] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Supplication is worship», [Transmitted by at-Tirmidhee]

Question No.19 Do dead hear our supplication? Answer No, they do not hear. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {But you can not make hear those who are in graves}, {Soorah Faatir, Aayah 22] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Allaah Has assigned angels to inform me of my nation salutation», [Transmitted by Ahmad]
Question No.20 Do we seek help from those who are dead, or from those who are not present? Answer No we do not seek help from, we rather seek help from Allaah. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Remember when you sought help of your Lord, and He answered you}, {Soorah al-Anfaal, Aayah 9] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «O Ever-Living, Self-Subsistent, upon Him all subsist, I seek help through Your Mercy», [Transmitted by at-Tirmidhee]
Question No.21 Is it permitted to seek help from any other besides Allaah? Answer No, it is not permitted. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {You (alone) we worship and you (alone) we ask for help}, {Soorah al-Faatihah, Aayah 5] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «If you ask, ask of Allaah, if you seek help seek help of Allaah», [Transmitted by at-Tirmidhee]
Question No.22 May seek help from the living? Answer Yes, in the matters in which they are able to help. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Help one another in al-Birr and at-Taqwa (virtue, righteousness)}, {Soorah al-Maa.idah, Aayah 2] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Allaah helps the worshipper as long as the worshipper helps his brother», [Transmitted by Muslim]

Question No.23 Is it allowed to make vows to other than Allaah? Answer No, it is not allowed to swear oaths except in Allaah's Name. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {O my Lord I have vowed to You what is in my womb to be dedicated for Your services}, {Soorah Aal-'Imraan, Aayah 35] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever vows to obey Allaah should obey Him, and whoever vows to disobey Him should not disobey Him», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree]

Question No.24 Is it allowed to sacrifice in any name besides Allaah? Answer No, it is not allowed. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only)}, {Soorah al-Kowthar, Aayah 2] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Allaah curses whoever sacrifices and slaughters in any name other than Allaah», [Transmitted by Muslim]

Question No.25 Is it permitted to circumambulate the graves of pious men? Answer No, it is not allowed. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And circumambulate the Ancient House (the Ka'bah in Makkah)}, {Soorah al-Hajj, Aayah 29] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever circumambulate the House (Ka'bah) seven times and prays two rak'ah», [Transmitted by Ibn Maajah]

Question No.26 Is it allowed to pray while the grave is in front of you? Answer No, it is not allowed. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {So turn your face in the direction of al-Masjid al-Haraam}, {Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 144] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Don't sit on the graves and do not pray towards them», [Transmitted by Muslim]

Question No.27 What is the ruling in Islam concerning the practice of sihr (black magic/sorcery)? Answer The practice of sihr is considered an act of disbelief. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {But the Devils disbelieved, teaching men sihr (magic and such things)}, {Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 102] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Avoid seven destroyers: Shirk, sihr…», [Transmitted by Muslim]

Question No.28 Should we believe the claims of fortunetellers and soothsayers? Answer No, we should not believe them. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Say: None in the heavens and the earth knows the Ghayb (unseen)}, {Soorah an-Naml, Aayah 65] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever goes to a fortuneteller or soothsayer, and believe what they say, has disbelieved in what has been revealed to Muhammad», [Transmitted by Ahmad]
Question No.29 Does any one have the knowledge of the (unseen)? Answer No one but Allaah alone has the knowledge of the unseen. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And with Him are the keys of Ghayb (unseen), none knows them but He}, {Soorah al-An'aam, Aayah 59] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «No one has the knowledge of the unseen except Allaah», [Transmitted by at-Tabaraanee]

Question No.30 By what sources do the Muslims govern? Answer Muslims govern by laws laid down in the Qur.aan and authentic Ahadeeth. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And so judge (you O Muhammad) between them by what Allaah has revealed}, {Soorah al-Maa.idah, Aayah 49] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Allaah is the judge and to whom is the return», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Question No.31 What is the ruling in Islam concerning applying non – Islamic laws? Answer It is an act of disbelief. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And whosoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, such are the disbelievers}, {Soorah al-Maa.idah, Aayah 44] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «When the leaders do not rule by Allaah's Book (Qur.aan) and choose the good from that which Allaah has revealed, Allaah will cause conflict among them», [Transmitted by Ibn Maajah]

Question No.32 Is it permitted to swear by other than Allaah's Name? Answer No, it is not permitted. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Say: Yes! By my Lord you will certainly be resurrected}, {Soorah at-Taghaabun, Aayah 7] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever swears by anyone other than Allaah, has associated partners with Allaah», [Transmitted by Ahmad]

Question No.33 Should we wear good luck charms (like amulets or talismans)? Answer No, we should not wear them. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And if Allaah touches you with harm none can remove it but He}, {Soorah al-An'aam, Aayah 17] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever wears an amulet has committed Shirk», [Transmitted by Ahmad]
Question No.34 Through what may we seek intercession with Allaah? Answer By His Names and Attributes. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And (all ) the most beautiful Names belong to Allaah, so call on Him by them}, {Soorah al-A'raaf, Aayah 180] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «I ask you by all your names, with which you wave named your self», [Transmitted by Ahmad]

Question No.35 Does any supplication to Allaah require a human intermediary? Answer No, prayer does not require a human intermediary. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And when my slaves ask you (O Muhammad) concerning Me, then I am indeed near (to them by My knowledge)}, {Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 186] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «You pray to the one who hears all and He is near and He is with you», [Transmitted by Muslim]
Question No.36 What is the mediation (waasitah) of the Messenger? Answer The mediation of the Messenger is the transmission of Allaah's Message. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {O Messenger (Muhammad) proclaim what has been sent down to you from your Lord}, {Soorah al-Maa.idah, Aayah 67] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Oh Allaah, have I proclaimed your message? Oh Allaah bear witness. (In response to the statement of the Sahaabah, "Indeed, we bear witness that you have proclaimed the message.")», [Transmitted by Muslim]

Question No.37 From whom may we seek the Messenger's intercession? Answer From Allaah alone. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Say: To Allaah belongs all intercession}, {Soorah az-Zumar, Aayah 44] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Oh Allaah grant to him (the Prophet) intercession for me», [Transmitted by at-Tirmidhee]

Question No.38 How do we demonstrate our love for Allaah and his Messenger? Answer By obeying and following their commands. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Say (O Muhammad to mankind) if you really love Allaah then follow me, Allaah will love you}, {Soorah Aal-'Imraan, Aayah 31] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «None of you have perfect faith until you love me more than your parents, children, and all mankind», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Question No.39 Should we be excessive in our praise for the Messenger? Answer No, we should not be excessive in our praise to him. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Say I am only a man like you. It has been inspired to me that your god is one ilaah (Allaah)}, {Soorah al-Kahf, Aayah 110] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Do not exaggerate in praising me, I am only a slave. So say Allaah's slave and Messenger», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree]

Question No.40 Who were the first creation? Answer From human being was Adam and from things was the pen. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Remember when your Lord said to the angels truly I am going to create man from clay}, {Soorah Sa'd, Aayah 71] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «The first thing created by Allaah was the pen», [Transmitted by at-Tirmidhee and Abu Daawood]

Question No.41 From what was Prophet Muhammad created? Answer He was created from Nutfah (drops of semen - male and female discharges). Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {It is He Who created you (Adam) from dust, then from a Nutfah}, {Soorah Ghaafir, Aayah 67] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «In every one of you, all components are created together in your mother's womb by 40 days», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
Question No.42 What is the status of jihad for the sake of Allaah in Islam? Answer It is obligatory with lives, wealth and speech. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {March forth , whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy (being ill, old and poor) strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the cause of Allaah}, {Soorah at-Towbah, Aayah 41] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Fight against the polytheisms with your wealth, lives and speech», [Transmitted by Abu Daawood]

Question No.43 What is Walaa (friendship and loyalty)? Answer Walaa (friendship and loyalty) is love and help of the faithful believers. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {The believers men and women are Awliyaa (helpers, supporters friends and protectors) of one another}, {Soorah at-Towbah, Aayah 71] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «The faithful believers are as a brick structure, each supporting the other», [Transmitted by Muslim]
Question No.44 Is seeking the friendship and help of disbelievers permitted? Answer No, it s not permitted. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And if any amongst you take them as Auliyaa then surely he is one of them}, {Soorah al-Maa.idah, Aayah 51] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «The people of such and such clan are not my supporters (Awliyaa)», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Question No.45 Who is Walee (friend)? Answer A Walee is a true believer, who fears Allaah very much. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Verily, Awliyaa of Allaah no fear shall come upon them nor shall they grieve}, {Soorah Yoonus, Aayah's 62-63] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «My only Walee is Allaah then the most pious among the true believers», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Question No.46 Why did Allaah reveal the Qur.aan? Answer So as to apply it to our daily life. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Follow what has been sent down to you from your Lord}, {Soorah al-A'raaf, Aayah 3] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Read Qur.aan and apply it, do not make your living from it», [Transmitted by Ahmad]
Question No.47 Is the Qur.aan alone sufficient for us without the Hadeeth (statements, actions, tacit approvals of the Prophet)? Answer No, it is not sufficient. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And We have sent down unto you (O Muhammad ) the reminder and the advice (the Qur.aan) that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought}, {Soorah an-Nahl, Aayah 44] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Indeed I have been given Qur.aan and along with it that which is like it», [Transmitted by Abu Daawood]

Question No.48 Should we give priority to other opinions over the Word of Allaah and His Messengers? Answer No, we should not. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Oh you who believe, do not be forward (hasten not to decide) in the presence of Allaah and His Messenger}, {Soorah al-Hujuraat, Aayah 1] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «There is no obedience to the creatures if it means disobeying the Creator», [Transmitted by Ahmad]
Question No.49 What should we do if we differ in the religious matters? Answer We should refer to holy Qur.aan and authentic Sunnah. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And if you differ in any thing amongst yourselves, refer back to Allaah and His Messenger}, {Soorah an-Nisaa., Aayah 59] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «I am leaving two things with you, you will never go astray if you hold fast to them, and they are Allaah's Book and the Sunnah», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
Question No.50 What is (al-bid'ah) innovation in religion? Answer It is any thing not based on evidence from Islamic law. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Or have they partners with Allaah who have instituted for them a religion which Allaah has not allowed?}, {Soorah ash-Shooraa, Aayah 21] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever adds something new in our matter (Islam), it will not be accepted», [Transmitted by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Question No.51 Is there good innovation (bid'atun hasanatun) in religion? Answer No, there is no good innovation in religion. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed my favour on you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion}, {Soorah al-Maa.idah, Aayah 3] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Beware of new things (in the matters of religion) for every new thing is innovation, every innovation is heresy and every heresy leads to Hellfire», [Transmitted by an-Nasaa.ee]
Question No.52 Is there such a thing as Sunnah Hasanah in Islam? Answer Yes, there is Sunnah Hasanah are good deeds (such as giving charity). Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {And made us leaders of the Muttaqoon (the pious)}, {Soorah al-Furqaan, Aayah 74] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Whoever introduces a good practice into Islam, will have the reward for it and the reward of those who follow his practice thereafter, yet they will lose nothing of their reward», [Transmitted by Muslim]

Question No.53 Is it enough for a person to reform himself? Answer No, it is a duty on him to reform his relatives also. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {Oh you who believe! Ward off yourselves and your families against a Fire}, {Soorah at-Tahreem, Aayah 6] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «Verily Allaah will ask every shepherd about his flock. Did he protect it or lose it?», [Transmitted by an-Nasaa.ee who declared it hasan]

Question No.54 When will Muslims be victorious? Answer When they apply Qur.aan and Sunnah (fully) in their lives. Evidence from the Noble Qur.aan {O you who believe! If you help in the cause of Allaah, He will help you, and make your foothold firm}, {Soorah Muhammed, Aayah 7] Evidence from the authentic Sunnah «There will always be a victorious group from my nation», [Transmitted by Ibn Maajah] Shaykh Muhammad ibn Jameel Zeenoo